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By Coulter H. George

How did old Greek convey that an occasion happened at a specific time, for a definite length, or inside of a given time-frame? the reply to those questions relies on a number of stipulations - the character of the time noun, the demanding and point of the verb, the actual historic interval of Greek within which the writer lived - that latest experiences of the language don't take sufficiently into consideration. This booklet hence examines the conditions that govern using the genitive, dative, and accusative of time, in addition to the appropriate prepositional buildings, basically in Greek prose of the 5th century BC throughout the moment century advert, but in addition in Homer. whereas the focal point is on advancements in Greek, translations of the examples, in addition to an absolutely glossed precis bankruptcy, make it obtainable to linguists attracted to the expression of time typically.

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Yet, after firing at the Athenians and their allies from each side during the day, after they observed . . . (Th. 7. eighty two. 1) (21) ὑετοῦ ἅμα διὰ νυκτὸς πολλοῦ ἐπιγενομένου whilst, considering the fact that loads of rain fell in the course of the evening (Th. 2. four. 2) either (20) and (21) consist in simple terms of the preposition and the time noun. now not even the thing is current, even supposing we'd anticipate it simply because, in either passages, the reference is to a specific day or evening. 19 That being so, may Thucydides have written easily τὴν ἡμέραν and τὴν νύκτα with an analogous strength? probably, yet not really, as there are variations among those structures and the seven examples of durative τὴν ἡμέραν and τὴν νύκτα. 20 First, the verbs modified by means of the durative accusative of time are varied from these modified via διά+G: the previous are verbs of staying and closing (ἡσυχάζω (2×), αὐλίζομαι (2×), ἐπέχω) and of touring (πορεύομαι, χωρέω) – that's, verbs that shape the regimen temporal framework of the narrative, and which regularly take place with different accusative of time expressions – while the latter 18 19 20 See the dialogue of ex. (74) in Ch. 1. That stated, it is common for articles to be passed over in prepositional words, esp. these touching on time (Kühner–Gerth 1898: 605–6, Gildersleeve 1911: 259–60). also they are stumbled on two times in ordinary expressions, either one of which include either time nouns: three. 88. three and seven. 28. 2. The durative instance with τὴν ἡμέραν happens at 2. eighty one. eight, people with τὴν νύκτα at three. seventy four. three, four. forty five. 1, four. sixty eight. five, four. 103. 1, 7. 29. three, 7. seventy four. 1. seventy one e x p r es s i o n s o f t i m e in t hu c y did e s verbs, βάλλω and ἐπιγίγνομαι, describe occasions that characterize relatively fashionable issues within the narrative. moment, the connection among the temporal expression and the broader context is assorted while διά+G is used. In five of the seven passages with durative τὴν ἡμέραν and τὴν νύκτα, the accusative of time is picked up in a heavily following sentence with a temporal expression touching on the subsequent unit of time. for instance, ἡσύχαζον αὐτοῦ τὴν ἡμέραν (2. eighty one. eight) is through ἐπειδὴ δὲ νὺξ ἐγένετο (2. eighty two. 1), and ἡσυχάσαντες τὴν νύκτα ἐν φυλακῇ ἦσαν (3. seventy four. three) by means of τῇ δὲ ἐπιγιγνομένῃ ἡμέρᾳ (3. seventy five. 1). 21 in contrast, the 2 examples with διά+G don't orient themselves to the wider temporal framework within the similar means; as a substitute, they relate extra to elements of their personal clause. For either (20) and (21) comprise emphatic phrases (πανταχόθεν and πολλοῦ respectively) whose significance is underscored via the διά+G word: they fired during the day from each side; there has been loads of rain in the course of the evening. 22 eventually, we may possibly ask what it truly is approximately those stipulations – modified verbs which are either extra salient and not more certainly fitted to a durative expression, and the first functionality of emphasizing a clause-internal constituent instead of integrating the clause into the encircling temporal framework – that may elicit the prepositional use instead of the straightforward accusative. the most obvious resolution is likely one of the right one: as a preposition whose leader function is to indicate the trail alongside which an item travels, διά+G may rigidity the belief of volume of time greater than the accusative by itself.

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