Sandwiched among the guts of historical Greece and the lands of Persia, the Greek towns of Western Anatolia have been the spark that ignited one of the most iconic conflicts of the traditional international. Fought over many times within the fifth century BC, their conquest through the Persians supplied a casus belli for Alexander the good to pass the Hellespont in 334 BC and release the conflict of Granicus and the sieges of Miletus and Halicarnassus. a mix of Greek and Asian sorts of army structure, those fortified towns have been innovative of their multi-linear building - successive protecting partitions - with loopholes and mural arches. Konstantin Nossov illustrates the evolution of Greek fortifications and the affects of the area they bordered during this interesting research.
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Additional info for Greek Fortifications of Asia Minor 500-130 BC: From the Persian Wars to the Roman Conquest (Fortress)
2m extensive. for the reason that the home windows can be utilized by arrow-firing units, yet now not through stone-projectors. The tower's abnormal function used to be pairs of corbels fixed on the most sensible of the interior flanking partitions above the apertures, in addition to a stone ring (now lowered to a stump) above the aperture on the entrance of the tower. The units have been almost certainly had to fasten the procedure of pulleys worthwhile for turning a catapult to stand a unique slit. A supposition that the tower had one other ground, one with greater home windows for putting stone-throwing engines, turns out not going. 2 Cadyanda (Lycia) close to Uzumlii, approximately 20km from Fethiye. The fortifications courting from the overdue 3rd-2nd century B C live to tell the tale on a small web site at the south-west aspect of town. the following the wall rises over 8m to the wall-walk. it really is attention-grabbing that the curtain is subsidized at durations of four. 2m via buttresses as thick because the partitions (1. 2m). The masonry of the curtains is mainly varied from that of the buttresses (uncoursed polygonal and coursed ashlar), yet as those buttresses are bonded into the wall there's no doubt that they're modern. A wood wall-walk could have existed at the buttresses. Caunos/Caunus/Kaunos (Caria) close to sleek Dalyan, approximately 15km west of Ortaca. The fortifications of Caunos stretch over hills, Persikon and Herakleion, and enclose the traditional harbour mendacity among them. Persikon, or the acropolis, was once the 1st to be fortified, within the sixth or fifth century B C the 1st urban defences, now not but large, date from the overdue fifth or early 4th century B C (before three nine four B C ) . in the midst of or in the direction of the tip of the 4th century B C (but prior to 309 B C ) fortifications seemed on Herakleion. The third or second century B C could have visible partitions at a few sections repaired and some towers extra. most of these levels are mirrored within the types of masonry that change from polygonal/Lesbian to uncoursed or coursed ashlar. The rubble and mortar partitions at the acropolis (Persikon) seemed within the heart a long time. one of the six old towers, tower T6 with its center flooring pierced through slits is healthier preserved. The towers range from small (c. five x 5m) to massive (c. 14 x 11m). In locations within the part H - J , the curtains live to tell the tale at their complete top ( 7 - eight m ) , merlons incorporated. either the merlons and the crenels among them are c. 1. 6m lengthy each one. every one merlon has a c. zero. 45m projection on its left aspect and grooves. The latter can have served to lock shutters or for a type of a mechanism that driven scaling ladders away. 2 Canytelis/Kanytelleis/Kanlidivane (Cilikia) approximately 30km east of Silifke. A indifferent tower at Canytelis, just like the tower at Diocaesarea, is an efficient instance of a personal residential tower (tyrsis). courting from c. 2 hundred B C , it truly is oblong (15 x 9m) with 1. 4m thick outer partitions. all the 3 surviving flooring was once partitioned into 3 rooms. the single surviving slim front with a relieving arch over the lintel is at the flooring ground. each one ground was once pierced via loopholes. Cnidus/Knidos (Caria) close to Yazi village, on the finish of the Datga peninsula.